In the wake of the Apple iCloud debacle, there has been a lot of discussion on what Apple has done wrong, what it could do better, and how this could have been prevented.
This is not a blog post about 2-factor authentication or proper implementation of authentication channels or how Apple should be more open in their dealings with the security community, but something more basic and common sense: give users more granular control on what gets backed up.
You will see in many discussions and comments to articles that there is quite a bit of "victim shaming".
But I think that this is quite unfair and I postulate that an average smartphone user has no idea that their photos are being synced to the cloud. It is far more likely that users had no idea that these photos and videos were synced to the cloud in the first place and even if they had an abstract idea that it was (for example, you take a photo on your phone and you can see it on your desktop later), they had no concrete idea of the implications (those photos are now resident in the cloud as opposed to transient).
It is easy to imagine that such things are obvious and should be trivially easy to configure and control to the end users, but I think that this is a poor assumption to make by anyone that is technically savvy; people like my mother and wife really have no idea about these things. My guess is that Jennifer Lawrence and Kate Upton simply had no idea that their photos and videos were sitting resident in the cloud and even if they did, they probably couldn't figure out how to get rid of them.
Some have said that this is not the fault of the OS makers or app makers. Google Photos, for example, gives you a very clear screen when you launch it for the first time asking you if you'd like to sync the files to the cloud. But one problem is that users may not actually read these things before agreeing. The other is that even after a user agrees, if the user decides that she wishes to change her mind, the setting is turned off from a screen that is three levels deep (launch Photos, click Menu, click Settings, click Auto Backup). While this is very obvious to some, to many -- like my mother -- this is an absolute mystery. She has no idea that it's syncing her photos and has no idea how to turn it off.
I think that there are many common sense solutions that can be implemented outside of the security measures implemented above to give users more granular control over their content.
Give Periodic Notifications to Update Privacy Settings
One simple idea is that say every three months, the phone prompts you with a notification in your notification bar:
This would allow users to periodically be reminded that things like automatic sync are on and that they have the option of turning them off. The user is free to ignore it, but it would give them at least a reminder that "Hey, I'm sending your stuff to the cloud, are you OK with that? Do you want to review your settings?"
Make Synchronization Explicit
One of the problems I have with Google Photos is that it's all or nothing by default. There isn't a middle ground that allows me to sync some of my photos as a default.
The user experience paradigm here would be much like that of Facebook where you can post photos by selecting them from your album to explicitly and with fine grain control what gets sent to the cloud. Likewise, iCloud and Google Photos would do well to allow a middle ground that gives users more fine grained control over what gets sent to the cloud instead of ON and OFF.
In discussions, some have said that this would present too high a burden on end users, but it seems to work fine for Facebook and I think that it would be relatively easy to implement in an easy to use manner:
If the user selects "Sync All", then all 20 new photos are synced to the cloud (be that iCloud, Dropbox, Google Drive, etc). If the user selects "Choose", the user is given a screen that allows the user to explicitly pick the ones to sync. The pick screen should prompt the user to "Ignore unselected items for future backup?" when selection is complete so that any unselected photos are simply ignored next time. If the user selects "Don't Sync", then do nothing.
A simple design like this still gives the user access to the convenience of cloud backups while giving them explicit, fine-grained control and acknowledgement that their data will be stored in the cloud.
The victim shaming is simply not warranted; whether these individuals should or should not have taken these compromising photos and videos is not the right question to ask. The right question to ask is whether Apple or Google should be automatically syncing them to a resident cloud storage without finer grained controls and explicit consent.
The principle is that any time you -- as it were -- voluntarily let up control.
In other words, cease to cling to yourself; you have an excess of power because you are wasting energy all the time in self defense.
Trying to manage things, trying to force things to conform to your will.
The moment you stop doing that, that wasted energy is available.
Therefore you are in that sense -- having that energy available -- you are one with the divine principle; you have the energy.
When you are trying, however, to act as if you were god, that is to say you don't trust anybody and you are the dictator and you have to keep everybody in line you lose the divine energy because what you are simply doing is defending yourself.
One mistake that I've been guilty of is to try to force things to conform to my will on various projects (I still do it to varying degrees!). It is usually with the best of intentions -- for a cleaner framework, a better product, a more efficient process -- but at the same time, it is true that a lot of energy is spent wasted in doing so.
What is the alternative, then?
I think Watts is right that a level of trust has to exist that the team around you can help you achieve your project goals. Instead of expending the energy in controlling the members of the team, spend the energy in building that trust through training, mentorship, guidance, and giving up not just control, but responsibility.
Sometimes that trust will be unwarranted, but sometimes, that trust will pay itself back many-fold.
Another finding was that the perception of heat could affect the participants’ emotions. The research team said that this is because emotions are more intense under bright light; thus, leading to the perception that light is heat, which can trigger more intense emotions.
The team also found that bright light affects the kinds of decisions people make. Since the majority of people work during the day under bright lighting conditions, the researchers noted that most daily decisions are made under bright light, which intensifies emotions.
Accordingly, they suggest that turning the light lower may help people make more rational decisions, not to mention negotiate better settlements in a calmer manner.
Taking emotion out of decision making is one of the most important skills one can develop and maybe it can be as simple as installing more ambient lighting and turning off those (ugly) fluorescent lamps overhead!
From Peopleware, 3rd Edition:
The propensity to lead without being given the authority to do so is what, in organizations, distinguishes people that can innovate and break free of the constraints that limit their competitors. Innovation is all about leadership, and leadership is all about innovation. The rarity of one is the direct result of the rarity of the other. (p. 101)
My sister-in-law pinged me for some tips to prepare for a long, multi-session interview coming up.
I've been on both ends as interviewer and interviewee (mostly interviewer) and I seem to have been pretty successful as far as interviews go, so here are my tips (your mileage may vary):
- There is no preparation. It's like an exam. Either you know your stuff or you don't. Zen out and accept that you may not be able to answer/know everything and that no amount of last minute cramming new material will help. The more you worry about the material the bigger of a problem you are creating for yourself because you'll just be more anxious.
- Have faith in what you do know. Whatever it is that you do know, you need to be able to communicate it effectively. You need to communicate your knowledge, your skills, and your character effectively. You are in an interview because someone likes your resume and the experience that you have so you have to be able to communicate that experience effectively.
- Say "I don't know" if you don't know. I interview a lot of people and one of my pet peeves is when I give a tough question and the interviewee won't just say "I don't know". Sometimes, the questions are designed to be hard so if you don't know, don't dance around it and be frank so you don't waste anyone's time.
- If you really think it's an interesting question, you can say "Hmm, I don't know, but I've never thought about it like that..."
- Or "I don't have a background in that topic, but it's interesting, how would you approach it?"
- Or "Oh, that's an interesting question; I've honestly never thought about that before". That leads me to my next tip...
This is, in fact, a trait that I am looking for in an interview because it lets me know that if an individual gets stuck, he will quickly raise his or her voice and let me know so I can help them get unstuck and that this individual is willing to ask for help.
- Make it conversational. The more you treat it like a grilling, the more it will feel like you're over a fire. I treat every interview like a conversation and treat every question like a conversational discussion. The interviewer is a conversation partner and not a superior or an interviewer. This also leaves a lasting impression on them because they feel like you are someone they can easily talk to and people like to work with people they can talk to. Also, you are always free to turn the tables and interview your interviewer; remember, an interview is a two way street: they want to know if they should hire you and you want to know if you really want to work with these people.
- Dress sharp, watch your posture, and give a strong first impression. Harvard studies have shown that posture has a strong influence not only on how others perceive you but also how you perform. Stand up straight. Sit straight. Shoulders back. Project confidence but also look relaxed. Use hand gestures to help communicate. Make eye contact -- don't lock it, though -- that's freaky. Using full body communication is important but remember not to fidget. Basic stuff.
- Remember names and call people by names. When you meet someone and greet them, they will present themselves and always call them by their name immediately. Interviewer: "Hi, I'm James"; you: "Hi, James, I'm Lindsay, pleased to meet you". It's subliminal, but people like to hear their names and it helps you make an impression in your brain so you know who he was. At the end, repeat the interviewer's name: "James, I really appreciate your time".
- Don't forget to drink water. When you talk a lot, your mouth and throat will get dry and if you don't hydrate, it will impact your ability to speak. Hit the restroom when you get a chance, even if you don't "need' to go because if you get the urge during a discussion, it will distract you.
- And final tip is to create mental checkpoints. One thing that happens with me is that because I treat an interview as a conversation, it is easy to lose the original question or topic in a long discussion. So you have to make a mental checkpoint and be able to bring the discussion back to the original topic to answer the question. You don't want to be in a position where you have to ask "Sorry, what was the question?"
Silicon Valley, of course, is known for its casual dress, which means t-shirts, jeans and sneakers. But don't be fooled, techies care a lot more about fashion than they let on. Or put another way, there’s a lot of code in the Silicon Valley dress code.
In fact, engineer Alexey Komissarouk boasted he could tell if people were in tech and what they did by just looking at their dress. I met him a few months ago at the FWD.us hackathon and I asked him to show me his super power. He agreed and we met in downtown Palo Alto.
Before we got started, Komissarouk explained that the Silicon Valley is full of tribes: there are the engineers, designers, product managers, salespeople, entrepreneurs and VCs. And each tribe has its uniform.
The engineers? T-shirts, jeans and hoodies, of course.
“Hoodie signals young talent,” said Dan Woods, a techie we stopped on the street.
Woods walked by us and Komissarouk nudged me and said, “That guy, he’s a VC.”
The tip off? A zippered v-neck sweater.
“That’s like classic VC and then you got the button down underneath it, that’s like the classic uniform,” Komissarouk said.
We stopped Woods and asked him. Turns out, he did work in venture capital, which is about when he got the sweater.
Turns out the uniform is a long time tradition in tech, says Erik Schnakenberg, a co-founder of Buck Mason, a start-up that sells men's clothing online.
"I wear a pair of jeans and a black t-shirt almost everyday," Schnakenberg said. "It's one less thing to think about."
In the fast-moving world of tec, the idea is to show that your'e not wasting precious time on something as vain as fashion. Schnakenberg says the uniform hasn't changed much but tech is attracting a lot more of the cool kids and they care about fashion.
It's also why I keep my head shaved myself. One less thing to think about when I roll out of bed.
...at work it’s strictly blue or gray suits. “I’m trying to pare down decisions. I don’t want to make decisions about what I’m eating or wearing. Because I have too many other decisions to make,” he tells Lewis. “You need to focus your decision-making energy. You need to routinize yourself. You can’t be going through the day distracted by trivia.”
A proposed rule of thumb for planning office spaces for development:
- Buy cheap desks.
- Buy expensive chairs.
Our office has it all wrong. We have desks that are solid as a rock but probably $600+ and seats that are $99 Office Max specials (just a guess). I suspect that this is the case with most offices where the planners spend a fortune on desks, dividers, cabinets, and so on (just go look up the prices of cubicle partitions from Hon or Steelcase) and go cheap on the seating.
The problem is that the majority of an office worker's time is spent sitting. Splurge on the chair instead. Don't go too cheap on the desks; Ikea Galants are perfectly stable, durable, lightweight, easy to hack, easy to refactor, cheap, and assembling them is a great team building exercise
There is no exception to this rule. If you want sit-to-stand type desks, just get something like this:
As an added bonus: if you have top candidates coming into the office for interviews, they are far more likely to be impressed by fancy chairs than fancy desks.
(Or in other words, how to arrange your office space)
As I have been working in the office more, I've started to think more about how to organize the office space to enhance the collaborative nature of our work.
A few weeks back, we were re-arranging our desks and I noticed how heavy they were and how un-conducive they were to refactoring. They are L-shaped desks with the two sections held together by two meager screws and a metal plate. Yet they were so heavy and unwieldy as to make them extremely difficult to move.
The thought occurred to me then why Ikea Galants are almost universally the office desk of choice for startups: they're cheap, they're sturdy, they're easy to move, they're open, and they're extremely hackable.
But beyond just the hardware, I've been thinking about how to improve our team's ability to collaborate as we are in a period that requires highly coordinated design and development to hit our very tight timeline. One of the first things we did was cluster the core team members into one area of the office so that it's easy to turn around and talk to anyone and so that all members of the team can hear and jump in on any design discussion.
This has downsides, of course, as it can get noisy and it can be difficult for other members who need to concentrate. However, my thought is that we should reuse the office rooms for private "thinking" or call areas with standing only desks (no seats) so that individuals who need temporary peace can move into an office but not get too comfortable.
My other thought has been that it is extremely important for the leaders, founders, CEO, president -- whomever, to sit with the team. The reason is that these decision makers need to know what's going on -- especially so in a startup -- and it's difficult to do so if their time is spent behind closed doors away from the action. Of course, there are times when important phone calls must be made or private discussions must be had, but again, the concept is to reserve the closed door rooms specifically for this purpose and only with standing desks.
An even bigger intangible is that having the leadership on the floor sets the tone for the team. In fact, I sit with my back facing my developers so that each of them can see what I'm working on and what I'm not doing. I'm not on Facebook, I'm not randomly browsing sites, I'm not sitting idle. I think this has a motivational effect and helps the team realize that we're all in this together to make the magic happen and that I'm not asking any more of them than I am of myself.
One final important lesson I've learned is that walls are stupid:
I've been thinking heavily on the topic of leadership for several days now and trying to understand what works and what doesn't. I am currently in the midst of a massive and daring undertaking and putting tremendous demands on my team to deliver.
My challenge has been to keep that pressure from them and help streamline this process so that they can focus on delivering and hitting our milestones. To achieve this, I've tried to step up my leadership and intensity.
I started with a daily stand-up meeting where we got around and discussed our plan for the day, but after just a few days, I thought to myself that it was too limiting if I set the goals for the team and dictated what they did. Who's to say that I have the best idea on how to hit our goals? Instead, I only set our team goal and let each member of the team set their own goals for the day.
The effectiveness of this approach is multifaceted:
The first is that it allows communication of the overall team goal. All members of the team need to know the goal and the mission to succeed; they have to see the bigger picture so that they know that there is a condition for victory and success.
The second is that it allows them to be responsible to their own expectations. Because the goals are set by themselves, if the goals are not achieved, it cannot be blamed on someone else setting unrealistic goals; each member is thus motivated by an internal force and not an external force.
The third is that you will get better ideas simply by having more brains work on the problem of identifying the goals that need to be achieved for success.
A goal oriented leader doesn't tell people to do things, but rather lets them set their goals and move all obstacles out of the path of achieving those goals. The idea is to transform yourself from a manager of tasks to a coordinator of goals: communicate a team goal, let the members set their own goals, and what a leader should do is align all goals to the mission.
(Also, it helps to keep the team well fed)
In talking with another dev this week, I think I have my simplest summary of object-oriented code yet: when you are writing well written object oriented code, you'll know it by the questions being asked by your code.
So what does this mean?
A good example is the following:
FormData formData = GetFormData(); // Object-oriented? Not really: bool isValid = FormDataUtil.IsValid(formData); // Object-oriented: bool isValid = formData.IsValid();
It's very subtle, but it's very easy to observe because you simply need to ask yourself if you are asking the questions to the right objects. We don't ask FormDataUtil if the formData is valid, we ask the formData directly.
Primarily, what this will reflect is the principle of encapsulation.
When you are asking the right questions to the right objects, you'll find that the code is easier to read, easier to maintain, less fragile, and more natural to reuse.
If the code is well written, as first time users, we don't have to know that there is a class explicitly designed to validate the form data; we can find it easily on the class itself.
I don't think it gets any simpler than that and yet it is, to me, the very essence of what it means to write object-oriented code.