I was reading an NPR piece on worker burnout and some different tactics taken by different companies to deal with it and came across a very nice, concise definition:
Christina Maslach is a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, whose four decades of research on the subject helped popularize the term "burnout." Maslach says it's a loose term that encompasses a combination of work overload, lack of autonomy and reward and social and moral discord at work.
This sentence very concisely summarizes the key drivers of burnout and the factors at play are not as simple as "too much work".
The article also brings up an interesting observation (well, it's just the next few paragraphs):
Most burnout stems from interpersonal strife, but most employers see the solution as time off, she says.
If companies really want to know what's causing burnout in their workplace, Maslach says, they shouldn't just mandate more time off. They should assess the core problem, then design solutions to mitigate those issues.
"When it's time off, I mean, that might be time away from work," Maslach says. "Maybe you're addressing issues of exhaustion, but it's not really addressing what may be the problems at work."
Ultimately, a company, a project, a product -- it is the effort of many individual humans who must come together to fulfill a common goal. And when humans are involved, conflict is sure to arise. Obviously, you can still get things done when not all of your parts are in harmony, but isn't it much more enjoyable when they are?
I hardly consider myself an expert, but in my own experience, I've found that it's a good idea to work to reinforce those relationships between the people that comprise the team through team activities. A common one is eating together with one another or occasionally taking the whole office to lunch or dinner. It is especially important for management to be involved because it shows that the employees are valued as people and not just as fungible parts of a machine.
Andrew Fitzgerald comments in that NPR article:
One day I got called into the boss's office. I was thinking to myself "Shoot! What does this guy have on me now? They called me in just to tell me that they thought I was doing a good job and that they appreciate my work ethic. I didn't make a lot of money. The work was kind of tedious and repetitive but I could not tell you how good that made me feel. A little positive feedback from the higher ups goes a long way.
At IC, the development team is in a unique position because all of us work remotely and travel to Irvine. So we end up spending quite a bit of time together eating meals, going to the shooting range, kayaking on the weekends, and I'm planning on taking the team to an indoor climbing facility as well (I try to keep things fresh). I also try to make sure that everyone is taken care of; there is nothing I won't do from picking up lunch, driving a co-worker to a train station, picking up fruit for everyone to share, and so on. Not just because I manage them, but because I like and respect these guys as people first and foremost.
Even at a basic level, we sit together in the office and chit-chat from time to time about random things and watch random videos after we've been hacking away for 8 or 9 hours. When we are on site, not one member of the development team leaves before the others. Not because anyone is forced to stay, and not because we have some unspoken code about such actions or that we would shame anyone that did, but I think because we all feel that we are in this together and that truly, we have a common goal to achieve as a team.
And that is an important point, in my opinion, because too often, how leaders fail is by not aligning all of the cogs of the machinery towards a common goal. Most of the time, that simply involves clear and open communication about expectations, company goals, and an understanding of the priorities of the company or the team.
Like a train with two engines heading in opposite directions, failure by team leads to align the members of a team to a goal or failure by management to communicate expectations and priorities seems to lead to inaction, indecision, and conflict when team members are trying to pull in opposite directions. Ultimately, this just help feed into worker burnout.
In the wake of the Apple iCloud debacle, there has been a lot of discussion on what Apple has done wrong, what it could do better, and how this could have been prevented.
This is not a blog post about 2-factor authentication or proper implementation of authentication channels or how Apple should be more open in their dealings with the security community, but something more basic and common sense: give users more granular control on what gets backed up.
You will see in many discussions and comments to articles that there is quite a bit of "victim shaming".
But I think that this is quite unfair and I postulate that an average smartphone user has no idea that their photos are being synced to the cloud. It is far more likely that users had no idea that these photos and videos were synced to the cloud in the first place and even if they had an abstract idea that it was (for example, you take a photo on your phone and you can see it on your desktop later), they had no concrete idea of the implications (those photos are now resident in the cloud as opposed to transient).
It is easy to imagine that such things are obvious and should be trivially easy to configure and control to the end users, but I think that this is a poor assumption to make by anyone that is technically savvy; people like my mother and wife really have no idea about these things. My guess is that Jennifer Lawrence and Kate Upton simply had no idea that their photos and videos were sitting resident in the cloud and even if they did, they probably couldn't figure out how to get rid of them.
Some have said that this is not the fault of the OS makers or app makers. Google Photos, for example, gives you a very clear screen when you launch it for the first time asking you if you'd like to sync the files to the cloud. But one problem is that users may not actually read these things before agreeing. The other is that even after a user agrees, if the user decides that she wishes to change her mind, the setting is turned off from a screen that is three levels deep (launch Photos, click Menu, click Settings, click Auto Backup). While this is very obvious to some, to many -- like my mother -- this is an absolute mystery. She has no idea that it's syncing her photos and has no idea how to turn it off.
I think that there are many common sense solutions that can be implemented outside of the security measures implemented above to give users more granular control over their content.
Give Periodic Notifications to Update Privacy Settings
One simple idea is that say every three months, the phone prompts you with a notification in your notification bar:
This would allow users to periodically be reminded that things like automatic sync are on and that they have the option of turning them off. The user is free to ignore it, but it would give them at least a reminder that "Hey, I'm sending your stuff to the cloud, are you OK with that? Do you want to review your settings?"
Make Synchronization Explicit
One of the problems I have with Google Photos is that it's all or nothing by default. There isn't a middle ground that allows me to sync some of my photos as a default.
The user experience paradigm here would be much like that of Facebook where you can post photos by selecting them from your album to explicitly and with fine grain control what gets sent to the cloud. Likewise, iCloud and Google Photos would do well to allow a middle ground that gives users more fine grained control over what gets sent to the cloud instead of ON and OFF.
In discussions, some have said that this would present too high a burden on end users, but it seems to work fine for Facebook and I think that it would be relatively easy to implement in an easy to use manner:
If the user selects "Sync All", then all 20 new photos are synced to the cloud (be that iCloud, Dropbox, Google Drive, etc). If the user selects "Choose", the user is given a screen that allows the user to explicitly pick the ones to sync. The pick screen should prompt the user to "Ignore unselected items for future backup?" when selection is complete so that any unselected photos are simply ignored next time. If the user selects "Don't Sync", then do nothing.
A simple design like this still gives the user access to the convenience of cloud backups while giving them explicit, fine-grained control and acknowledgement that their data will be stored in the cloud.
The victim shaming is simply not warranted; whether these individuals should or should not have taken these compromising photos and videos is not the right question to ask. The right question to ask is whether Apple or Google should be automatically syncing them to a resident cloud storage without finer grained controls and explicit consent.